Расширение круга носителей русского языка может привести к увеличению расходов на социальное и медицинское обслуживание россиян

Екатерина Добрикова

 Расширение круга носителей русского языка может привести к увеличению расходов на социальное и медицинское обслуживание россиян
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Увеличение числа потенциальных носителей русского языка, по мнению членов экспертно-аналитического совета при ОП РФ, приведет к повышению нагрузки на комиссии, признающие лиц носителями русского языка, негативно отразится на объективности вынесенных комиссией решений, а также в конечном счете повлечет увеличение расходов на социальное и медицинское обслуживание населения России. Об этом в ходе состоявшихся вчера в ОП РФ «нулевых чтений» законопроекта заявила председатель Комиссии ОП РФ по развитию и общественной дипломатии и поддержке соотечественников за рубежом Елена Сутормина.

Речь идет о законопроекте1, предлагающем упростить порядок предоставления вида на жительство и получения российского гражданства для носителей русского языка. Документ, в частности, расширяет круг тех, кто может пройти собеседование на получение статуса носителя русского языка. Сейчас такое право имеют лица, которые сами или чьи родственники по прямой восходящей линии постоянно проживают или ранее постоянно проживали на территории России либо на территории, относившейся к Российской империи или СССР (ч. 1 ст. 33.1 Федерального закона от 31 мая 2002 г. № 62-ФЗ «О гражданстве Российской Федерации»). Если законопроект будет одобрен, такое право получат также те, кто родился в России или имеет родственников по прямой восходящей линии, родившихся здесь.

О том, при каких обстоятельствах срок проживания в России лица, ходатайствующего о получении российского гражданства, может быть сокращен до одного года, узнайте из материала «Прием в гражданство в общем порядке» в Домашней правовой энциклопедии интернет-версии системы ГАРАНТ. Получите бесплатный доступ на 3 дня! Получить доступ

Опасения членов экспертного совета ОП РФ поддерживает и. о. заведующего Лабораторией экономики народонаселения и демографии экономического факультета МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова Ольга Чудиновских. Она отметила, что подобное расширение круга потенциальных носителей русского языка, повлечет за собой возникновение экономических рисков, связанных с расходами на медицинское страхование, а также пенсионное и иное социальное обеспечение таких лиц. «Вместо попытки определить основные особенности узкой целевой группы, для которой и разрабатывался законопроект (например, украинцы, оказавшиеся в сложном положении, люди с неурегулированным правовым статусом из-за неправильного оформленных паспортов), вместо определения рамок этих групп, законодатели пошли по пути поиска простого ответа на сложные вопросы», – заявила она. Эксперт предложила внести в документ соответствующие коррективы, а также подвести к нему строгое экономическое обоснование.

Помимо указанного выше положения, законопроект предлагает отменить требование о предоставлении носителями русского языка документа иностранного государства о приеме заявления о выходе из гражданства в том случае, когда они обращаются с заявлением на получение вида на жительство в России. Сейчас, напомним, такой документ необходим (п. 3.2 ст. 8 Федерального закона от 25 июля 2002 г. № 115-ФЗ «О правовом положении иностранных граждан в Российской Федерации»).

«За последние три года гражданство получили всего 3,5 тыс. человек, признанных носителями русского языка. Почему так мало? Потому что норма о предоставлении справки иностранного государства не работает и не может работать в принципе – иностранное государство не обязано выдавать России справки по отказу от гражданства. Так, 63% из тех 3,5 тыс. человек, которые смогли получить российское гражданство, – граждане Таджикистана, которым не нужно предоставлять такую справку, потому что с этой страной у нас действует соглашение о двойном гражданстве. Следовательно, им выходить из своего гражданства для получения российского не нужно», – прокомментировал автор законопроекта, первый заместитель председателя Комитета Госдумы по делам СНГ, евразийской интеграции и связям с соотечественниками Константин Затулин.

В данной части эксперты ОП РФ также законопроект поддержали. «Эта мера позволит устранить существующие в настоящее время дискриминацию носителей русского языка с иными категориями иностранных граждан при предоставлении вида на жительства. В последнее время в нашу комиссию поступило очень много обращений от жителей Крыма, которые получили статус носителей русского языка, но для получения вида на жительства они не могут предоставить справку, поскольку посольство Украины такие справки не дает, считая территорию оккупированной», – поделилась Елена Сутормина.

Позитивно инициативу оценили и другие эксперты, некоторые из которых даже предложили свои идеи по совершенствованию существующей системы. Так, по мнению председателя совета политэмигрантов Украины Ларисы Шеслер, носителем русского языка следует считать человека, для которого русский является первым языком, не приобретенным в процессе образования, а полученным при рождении. Более того, русский язык для него должен быть базовым для национальной и культурной самоидентификации. Такие разъяснения необходимо, по ее мнению, довести до комиссий, принимающих решение о присуждении статуса носителя русского языка, что позволит сделать их решения более четкими и обоснованными.

А представитель Уральской ассоциации беженцев Людмила Лукашева предложила создать комиссию по миграционным спорам: «Можно взять за основу, например, комиссии по делам несовершеннолетних или комиссии по трудовым спорам, которые не только решают актуальные вопросы, но и занимаются просвещением соответствующих категорий лиц». Предполагается, что функционировать такие комиссии будут на уровне федеральных округов.

Напомним, что на рассмотрении депутатов уже находится похожий законопроект2, авторы которого предлагают упростить порядок получения российского гражданства для граждан определенных государств, процедура выхода из гражданства которых затруднительна, в том числе по политическим причинам. 

Источник: garant.ru

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