Как Трамп собирается реформировать налоговую систему США

Как Трамп собирается реформировать налоговую систему США

Трамп, налоги

Как Трамп собирается реформировать налоговую систему США
02.06.2017

Дональд Трамп обнадёжил американский бизнес очередной публикацией в своём микроблоге, посвящённой «масштабному характеру налоговой реформы», которая «протекает с опережением графика».

Это заявление стало очередным в серии коротких «отчётов» президента США в его аккаунте Twitter. Таким образом глава государства даёт положительный сигнал бизнесу, ожидающему обещанного снижения самого высокого в мире корпоративного налога с 35% до 15%, считают эксперты. RT разбирался, будет ли налог действительно снижен и к чему это приведёт.

Масштабная налоговая реформа, начатая новой американской администрацией, протекает с опережением графика. Об этом Дональд Трамп объявил в своём Twitter. Таким образом президент США напомнил бизнес-сообществу об обещанном снижении самого высокого в мире корпоративного налога с 35% до 15%, считают эксперты.

«Рассмотрение предложенного мною плана по проведению масштабной налоговой реформы/сокращению налогов продвигается весьма успешно, даже опережает намеченные сроки. Пусть все останутся в большом выигрыше!» — написал президент США в понедельник, 29 мая.

Одной из первых инициатив в экономической политике Дональда Трампа было реформирование налоговой системы, ей же отводилась значительная часть в предвыборной кампании президента. В гонке за кресло в Белом доме Трамп делал ставку на поддержку бизнеса и среднего класса — и не ошибся, напоминает RT американский бизнесмен и инвестор Джим Роджерс.

Так, основными направлениями в налоговом реформировании Трампа значатся: снижение максимальной ставки подоходного налога с 39,6% до 33% и упрощение прогрессивной шкалы налогообложения, в которой останутся только три ставки — 12%, 25% и 33%. Также президент намерен отменить прогрессивный налог на наследство и снизить ставку налога для компаний с 35% до 15%. По мнению президента США, высокий корпоративный налог тормозит развитие американской экономики.

Как заявил министр финансов США Стивен Мнучин, расходы на налоговую реформу покроют прогнозируемый рост экономики до 3% в год, однако глава финансового ведомства не привёл расчётов по окупаемости.

В целом администрация президента ожидает, что реформа позволит снизить долю американцев, живущих за чертой бедности. При Бараке Обаме этот показатель превышал 13,5% населения и составлял 43 млн человек.

Окончательный вариант реформы был опубликован на сайте Белого дома в конце апреля, однако реализация плана внушает экспертам и аналитикам серьёзные опасения.

Как отметил в разговоре с корреспондентом RT профессор факультета мировой экономики и мировой политики НИУ ВШЭ Виктор Супян, не существует прямой связи между снижением налогов и динамикой экономического роста.

«Сейчас аналитики оценивают показатели роста американской экономики в 2-2,5%, а Трамп в 4% — в этом первое несоответствие. Второе расхождение — в планах снижения налогов и увеличения государственных расходов на оборону и на инфраструктуру. Если не произойдёт экономического роста США, то это приведёт к дефициту бюджета, и запланированные программы будет просто не на что финансировать. В этой реформе заложены серьёзные противоречия и неопределённость для американской экономики» — пояснил RT профессор факультета мировой экономики и мировой политики НИУ ВШЭ Виктор Супян.Он напоминает, что Дональд Трамп также обещал освободить от налогообложения американцев с годовым доходом менее $25 тыс. и ликвидировать налог на наследство, стоимость которого оценивается менее чем в $5,5 млн.

Реформа для репутации

Согласно расчётам на 2018 финансовый год, которые представлены на сайте Белого дома,половину объёма бюджетных доходов в казну США обеспечат поступления от подоходного налога ($1 трлн 836 млрд), а также сборы по налогу на заработную плату (1 трлн 224 млрд), в том числе $892 млрд — на социальное обеспечение, $270 млрд — здравоохранение, $50 млрд — выплаты в рамках страхования на случай безработицы. Ещё $355 млрд поступят от корпоративного налога и $146 млрд от таможенных сборов, тарифов на импорт и косвенных налогов.

 

Поступления в бюджет США в 2016 году составили $3 трлн 276 млрд — это ниже прогнозируемого ранее уровня ($3 трлн 545 млрд). На долю подоходного налога пришлось 47% от общих поступлений в бюджет, налога на заработную плату — 34%, на долю корпоративного налога пришлось 9%. Остальные 10% были представлены акцизными сборами, налогами на наследство, процентами по депозитам Федеральной резервной системы и другими источниками.

Реализация реформы в налоговой сфере очень важна для президента США в первую очередь для поддержания репутации, утверждает генеральный директор аналитического департамента Alpari Research & Analysis в Великобритании Роберто д’Амброзио.

«Проведение изменений в системе здравоохранения и снижение налогов важно, так как это были предвыборные обещания Дональда Трампа. Возможно, это будет не всесторонняя налоговая реформа, но, по крайней мере, снижение налогов для корпораций», — рассказал RT Роберто д’Амброзио.

https://russian.rt.com

 

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