Заключение госзаказчиком предварительного договора может быть квалифицировано как нарушение антимонопольного законодательства

Екатерина Чернявская

 Заключение госзаказчиком предварительного договора может быть квалифицировано как нарушение антимонопольного законодательства

К такому выводу пришли эксперты службы Правового консалтинга компании «Гарант». Эксперты пояснили, что заключение предварительного договора влечет обязанность сторон заключить в будущем основной договор на определенных условиях. Следовательно, заказчик, заключивший предварительный договор, принимает на себя обязательство заключить основной договор с уже определенным заранее конкретным лицом и не использует предусмотренные законодательством конкурентные процедуры при проведении госзаукпок (п. 4 ст. 16 Федерального закона от 26 июля 2006 г. № 135-ФЗ «О защите конкуренции»).

Таким образом, заключение заказчиком предварительного договора может быть квалифицировано как нарушение антимонопольного законодательства и это может повлечь за собой наказание, в том числе за заключение ограничивающего конкуренцию соглашения, осуществление ограничивающих конкуренцию согласованных действий и координацию экономической деятельности (ст. 14.32 КоАП) (решение УФАС по Ульяновской области от 14 октября 2016 г. № 13493/04-2016).

Специалисты также обращают внимание, что результатом исполнения обязательств, предусмотренных предварительным договором, является не приобретение товара (работы, услуги), а заключение основного договора (ст. 429 Гражданского кодекса). А следовательно, заключение предварительного договора не свидетельствует о начале осуществления закупки, что находит подтверждение и в судебной практике (постановление Одиннадцатого арбитражного апелляционного суда от 14 ноября 2016 г. № 11АП-15016/16).

На какие товары и продукты иностранного происхождения сегодня распространяются ограничения по госзакупкам? Узнайте из материала «Запреты и ограничения допуска к закупкам по Закону № 44-ФЗ отдельных иностранных товаров, работ, услуг» в «Энциклопедии решений. Государственные и корпоративные закупки» интернет-версии системы ГАРАНТ. Получите полный доступ на 3 дня бесплатно!

Также эксперты отмечают, что в связи с заключением предварительного договора у заказчика не возникает безусловного обязательства заключить с контрагентом основной договор на условиях, предусмотренных предварительным. Это применимо к случаям, когда для осуществления закупки необходимо проведение конкурентных процедур. Ведь контракт по результатам проведения таких процедур заключается с победителем, а не с лицом, с которым ранее был заключен предварительный договор. В случаях же, когда закупка может быть осуществлена у единственного контрагента, основной договор принципиально может быть заключен с контрагентом по предварительному договору без нарушения положений Федерального закона от 5 апреля 2013 г. № 44-ФЗ «О контрактной системе в сфере закупок товаров, работ, услуг для обеспечения государственных и муниципальных нужд». Но и в этом случае закупка должна быть предусмотрена планом и планом-графиком закупок.

Источник: garant.ru

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