Российский потребитель не борется за свои права

Российский потребитель не борется за свои права

Около трети россиян за последние полгода сталкивались с нарушением своих прав в повседневной жизни. Чаще всего это происходит при покупках товаров в магазинах, а также в сферах здравоохранения и ЖКХ. Однако, по данным аналитического центра НАФИ, проводившего исследование, отстаивать свои права не готовы 74% пострадавших. Эксперты считают причиной этого отсутствие эффективного механизма защиты своих прав у граждан, что приводит к их правовой пассивности, сообщают «Известия».Согласно результатам опроса, если в целом о нарушении прав в течение полугода сообщили 28% респондентов, то среди жителей Москвы и Петербурга их доля составляет 36%, а в других городах-миллионниках — 37%. Причем 11% обратившихся указывают, что у них было пять и более таких случаев в течение полугода.

Среди тех, кто сталкивался с нарушениями своих прав, 33% признались, что они были связаны с розничной торговлей. Например, покупателям отказывали в возврате некачественного товара. 32% отметили нарушение своих прав в сфере ЖКХ и медицины — когда стоимость услуг оказывалась завышенной.

Реже опрошенные сообщали о нарушениях в сфере транспортных услуг (13%), связи (12%), общественного питания и финансовых услуг (по 10%).

Отвечая на вопрос, что они предпринимали, когда их права были нарушены, большинство участников исследования (32%) сообщили, что обращались за советом к близким. 26% в такой ситуации искали информацию в интернете. К услугам профессиональных юристов прибегали лишь 13% опрошенных, а 11% самостоятельно изучали законы и постановления.

По данным юридической компании «Амулекс», совместно с которой проводилось исследование, механизм жалоб использовал лишь каждый пятый пострадавший: напрямую к нарушителям обращались 11%, в вышестоящую инстанцию — 6%, в прокуратуру и Роспотребнадзор — 2%. При этом граждане с высшим образованием писали жалобы вдвое чаще, чем те, кто не оканчивал вуз (28% против 15%).

А 74% никаких активных действий при нарушениях их прав не предпринимали (среди людей с высшим образованием их доля составила 67%).

— Результаты исследования демонстрируют правовую пассивность наших граждан — чаще всего «решение» вопроса с нарушением прав заканчивается обсуждением ситуации с близкими и друзьями, не переходя в правовую плоскость, — прокомментировала «Известиям» данные опроса гендиректор НАФИ Гузелия Имаева. — С одной стороны, это связано с отсутствием знаний и навыков в области защиты собственных прав даже по самым бытовым вопросам. С другой — с нашим высоким уровнем терпения.

Председатель правления Независимого экспертно-правового совета, член Совета при президенте по правам человека Мара Полякова сообщила «Известиям», что, по ее наблюдениям, граждане в последнее время стали чаще отстаивать свои права.

— Сегодня спрос на эти услуги очень серьезный. Я вспоминаю годы после перестройки, тогда люди вообще к этому не стремились. Когда мы начинали работать, в правозащитных организациях практически не было юристов, — отметила эксперт.

Председатель правления «Международной конфедерации обществ потребителей» Дмитрий Янин полагает, что россияне в основной массе не требовательны как потребители.

— Чаще всего права граждан нарушаются именно в сфере торговли, — подтвердил он «Известиям». — Взрослый человек совершает ежедневно не менее десяти сделок — пользуется общественным транспортом, покупает что-то в магазине, оплачивает коммунальные платежи. Если каждая сотая сделка сопровождается проблемами, это означает, что раз в десять дней у человека возникает та или иная сложность. Если на каждую из них реагировать бурно, не хватит ни нервов, ни денег. Каждый раз приходится соизмерять возможные затраты и принимать решение — связываться ли с этим или просто попросить новый салат. В большинстве случаев простое указание на ошибку срабатывает.

По словам Дмитрия Янина, результаты исследования свидетельствуют также о том, что на потребительском рынке слабо развита конкуренция. Там, где она высока, как правило, лучше качество и более адекватная реакция на замечания.

Кроме того, по мнению экспертов, исследование отражает также тот факт, что в России не хватает эффективного механизма защиты прав потребителей — судебные тяжбы отнимают много времени и денег.

Источник: zakonia.ru

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